If you’re going camping in the winter, you need to ensure your tent has the proper insulation to keep you warm. In ideal circumstances, you should buy a 4-season tent, which has insulation for all weather conditions. This tent will do half the work in insulation, so you have just a little more to do to keep yourself completely warm.
If you have a 2 or 3-season tent, your tent wasn’t made to survive the frigid winter temperatures, and you must insulate it yourself.
This article discusses the essential steps on how to insulate a tent for winter camping. For its purposes, we’ll assume you have a tent with no insulation at all. If yours has some insulation, just skip over to the extra steps to increase the warmth of the tent.
1. Choose Your Smallest Tent
Did you know that the human body releases enough heat to keep a 100-Watt bulb lit 24 hours a day? After insulation, your body heat should be more than enough to keep you warm, because most of the heat will be retained in the tent.
But why should you get a smaller tent?
The less space you have that needs heating, the more likely it is that the heat will remain close to you. If you’re camping in the winter you’re probably also an all-year-round camper. In the summer, a huge breezy tent can turn into an icicle that sucks up all your heat. Additionally, you’ll have to use more materials to insulate the tent.
Choose the smallest tent that comfortably accommodates you (singular or plural), but not much larger. Remember that indoor heating sources have their risks, and should be used sparingly.
2. Choose Your Location
Next, the place you choose to camp in the winter is the second-most-important decision to be made. Try to pitch your tent in the most sheltered place around you, such as behind a rock. With a sheltered place, you have significant protection from the elements.
Do not pitch a tent in low-lying areas if snow is expected. Snow slowly moves to lower areas over time, so choose higher ground.
If you can’t find one, you can create your own wind barrier where you choose to camp. Mount snow to a height larger than the height of your tent, according to the wind direction. Consider that winds can change direction, and so you need to stake your tent, even if you build a wind barrier.
Without snow, you can use a tarp to build a wind shelter. Just attach a tarp to two trees and secure it on its four corners.
Next, clear the ground where you decide to pitch your tent. Create a flat spot by removing all the snow that you can. Under your tent, snow is likely to melt and eventually refreeze, creating uncomfortable ridges and bumps.
3. Choose Insulation Materials
Air is the most common and easily available heat medium that you can use to your advantage when insulating. Think about double or triple-pane windows; their insulation ability comes from the air trapped between them. Insulating materials, therefore, should not be densely packed; they should trap air between them to prevent heat from escaping.
Another essential quality is reflectiveness – the material should have a reflective surface to reflect the heat in the air back to you. Typically, 4-season tents have a layer of heavy-duty reflective foam. This foam uses trapped gases that are even lighter than air to provide better insulation. You can use the material to insulate both the walls and the floor.
4. Insulate the Tent Wall
Tent walls will have constant contact with cold air, and they have the largest surface area, meaning you’ll lose most heat through the walls.
Also, remember that warm air rises. Hence the reflective insulator – it means the warm air will mostly bounce back to you. If you’re on a limited budget, you can actually get away with insulating the top part of the tent, but some heat will still escape through the lower walls.
Insulating the Inner Walls and Roof
This is time-consuming, and it must be done each time you set up camp. Stick the reflective foam or other insulation materials to the walls in the same way you’d insulate a house.
While more tedious, packing insulation in the inner walls gives better insulation than insulating outer walls. Be sure not to leave any spaces by layering the insulative material end-to-end. Pay close attention to the corners.
Insulating the Outer Walls
This is much faster, and it works by trying to keep the cold outside. In this case, the reflective surface is placed facing outside to reflect away the cold air. This also works very well in the summer to keep the tent cool.
Line the outside of the tent with the reflective material as described above, taking care not to leave any gaps.
5. Insulate the Tent Floor
Because you’re in direct contact with the floor, a significant amount of cold will come from the floor. A cheap way to insulate your floor is to cover it with blankets, although you may not have many if you’re backpacking, not car camping. Be sure to carry one or two woolen blankets; you can also use synthetic blankets, which are lighter, although they don’t work as well as woolen ones. Lay the ground tarp before setting up your tent.
Choose reflective insulating foam with a reflective surface on both sides, if you can afford to buy insulation. The top surface reflects your body heat back into the tent and you, while the bottom surface reflects the cold air from the ground.
Cover the floor to a height of 5 inches from the ground, where most of the cold air currents on the ground circulate. The best way to do this is to use an air mattress, and not a bed.
Air under the bed is flowing freely, and as a gas, it will transfer heat from you into the ground. In an air mattress, the air is trapped and hence provides additional insulation.
Camping in the winter is not for the fainthearted. If you love the outdoors enough to begin a winter camping expedition, then you’re already prepared for the additional effort. Car camping is a good idea because you can carry all your insulating materials without worrying about their weight.
If you’re not experienced at winter camping, you should definitely try car camping before backpacking in winter. Carry everything you think you might need; it’s better to carry extras and not use them, than not carry what you would have needed. Otherwise, we hope you have learned how to insulate a tent for winter camping.